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Full text of "Veterinary science : being an address to the gentlemen, farmers and graziers of Long Island, shewing in a brief view the importance of introducing this branch of domestic science, with a view of ameliorating the diseases of that noble animal the horse, and quadrupeds in general"

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 
Washington 




Founded 1836 



U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 



Public Health Service 



ZS5" \ 
YETERINAMY SCIENCE. 

BEING 

AN ADDRESS 

TO THE 

GENTLEMEN, FARMERS AND GRAZIERS 

OF 

LONG ISLAND, 

SHEWING IN A BRIEF VIEW 

THE IMPORTANCE OF INTRODUCING THIS BRANCH 

OP 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE, 

WITH A VIEW OF AMELIORATING THE DISEASES 
OP 

THAT NOBLE AN TV IAL THE 

MORSE, 

AND 

QUADRUPEDS IN GENERAL. 
BROOKLYN, 

fNTED BY A. SPOONER, 






TO 



( 






BR. MITCHELL, M. D. &c. &c. &«. 

* SIR, 

YOUR general character as a physician and a man of sci- 
« nee, and the pleasure you appear always to have taken in en- 
couraging every laudable and well meant endeavour of individu- 
als in general, desirous of alleviating the sufferings of the animal 
creation, whether Man, or quadruped; — I have presumed in the 
liberty of dedicating to your attention these few sheets, with a 
view of diffusing more generally tire necessity of drawing from 
obscurity a branch of natural knowledge, which when better 
known, and more generally understood, must entail many bles- 
sings on community at large. 

The example of other nations, operating on the good sense of 
our mother country, having advanced thai to the dignity of a 
science, which before was exercised blindly, and without princi- 
ples, and rather to the detriment than the advantages of the ob- 
je< ts it was intended to serve, may probably serve as a very use- 
ful hint to this. It appears to me that the following explanation. 
in a comprehensive view of all that immediately or collaterally 
belongs to the Veterinary Art, would be no unacceptable offering 
to the public. 

Having since my last introduction to you, commenced the 
practice of this branch of science, and knowing the obscurity oJ 
its character to people in general in this country, I have not un- 
dertaken it without some temerity. Yet on the other hand, its 
prospects are not without encouragement ; the sun of veterinary 
science, sir, has already dawned on this happy laud, and its in- 
estimable beams have already pierced through the thick darkness 
in which it seemed permanently euvelop'd. Its approach, too, 
lias been happily indicated in the labours of an eminent veteri- 
narian now established in New- York, who breathing a medical 
atmosphere, is imbued with principles which eminently qualify 
him /or such a pursuit. 

At length the removal off/as spell, which has hitherto prevent* 
( d the free exercise of genius, and the operations of useful ox- 

1 



11 

periments, seems now to be reserved for men like yourself (o en- 
courage, and to whose zeal and public spirit, this country will no 
doubt stand indebted, for a body of enlightened practitioners, 
which in a few years may become dispersed throughout our 
Union. 

Whatever you may have done, sir, to increase, or promote 
the public stock of knowledge in other useful departments, it is too 
1 amentaple a truth, that this branch of domestic science, called 
the Veterinary Art, has been totally neglected, and though none 
may attempt to deny the importance of its claims from the Fa- 
culty in General, yet I am confident, from this mark of your 
personal condescension, you will not only help to raise the Art 
from contempt to respectability, but by patronizing this well meant 
endeavour, you will induce many medical students of liberal 
education, to devote their services to its improvement. 

During a period of fifteen years individual exertions, I have 
laboured with much zeal to introduce it so far, and though from 
private unfortunate circumstances, my future exertions must 
still remain very limited, still I live in the pleasing hope of see- 
ing it become diffused throughout this country : and in no in- 
stance, sir, will your patronage be more happily employed than 
in the present, — since the noblest and most valuable Arts, are 
those which embrace the widest sphere of Benevolence; utility 
to mankind, mercy and relief to the brute creation. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
with respectful esteem, 
Your obedH servant, 

Carver's Infirmary, 
Oyster Bay. Long Island, May 1816. 



J. CARVER, 



CARVERS 

REPOSITORY, FORGE AND HORSE 
INFIRMARY. 



MR. CARVER, 

Veterinary Surgeon and Professor of Animal Medicine, from the 
Royal Veterinary College of London, 

Respectfully informs tlic Gentlemen Farmers and Gra- 
ziers of Long Island, that having now received his regular 
degrees, and obtained his Diploma from the examining com- 
mittee of Surgeons and Physicians of that Institution, has 
returned to this country, with a view of promulgating that 
Branch of Natural Knowledge, wherein the diseases of 
Horses, and Quadrupeds in general, will be attended to on 
Scientific principles. 

Mr. Carver has established a Repository, Forge and 
Veterinary Infirmary on Cock's Farm at Oyster Bay, where 
patients will be received and attended to with regular medi- 
cal care. — Corns, Thrushes, and Contraction of the feet, 
Three of the most formidable diseases to which the horse is 
subject, and which proves the entire destruction of many 
thousands in this Country, will not only be cured, but pre- 
vented from returning, by the application of Professor Cole- 
man's patent Shoes, lately introduced at the college for that 
purpose. 

Such gentlemen, therefore, as have horses, which from 
unscientific treatment have been given over by the Common 
Farrier, and pronounced foundered, with other false and 



erroneous condemnations of Affections of the feci, would dw 
well to apply to Mr. Carver who will always give his opi- 
nion with that candour gentleman may rely on. 

Mr. Carver also respectfully informs the public, that hav- 
ing very early in life acquired the Art of Civil and Military 
Equitation, in the first Military Academies on the Continent of 
Europe, and afterwards held for many years an appointment 
as Equerry of Horse, in India, he will undertake to Dress 
Horses for Military Parade, harness or saddle, on the most 
approved principles of two of the most celebrated Horsemen 
the world ever produced, Sir Sidney Meadows and the Earl 
of Pembroke. Ladies Horses will also he fore shortened 
and perfectly broke to the side saddle. Good and well ven- 
tilated Stabling, with the best of pasturage, corn and hay — 
with man]} other advantages not obtainable in a city while 
under medical treatment, on moderate terms. 

Mr. Carver having for many years foreseen the want of* 
an Establishment of this Nature, with a view of obviating 
the Joekeyship and Chicanery of men void of principle, to 
which Gentlemen have so long been subject, ia procuring 
horses sound and well brolxcn, has in conjunction with the 
practice of the veterinary art, established a repository, with 
a Riding School, and a range of new ventilated Stables on 
the college plan, (which is now in cmhryo) hut where Gen- 
tlemen may at all times apply with confidence, and depend 
on dealing with a man of Zfonor and Integrity. 

A new mode of Castration as now adopted at the Veteri- 
nary College by Professor Coleman, also Opthahnia or In- 
flammation of the Tunica ConjuncUiia and its consequences 
which generally terminate in cataract — cured by Surgical 
Operation, in all its Incipient Stages. 

Treaclicolowij, erroneously called Broncliotomy, an opera- 
tion now performed at the Veterinary College with great 
success. In cases of lufiuetr/a, Catarrh and Roaring (com- 
monly called Broken Annd,) is also performed by Mr. Car- 
ver, on scientific principles. This operation has of late 
years saved the lives of many hundred horses in the armies 
of Europe. 



Such are the leading points of Mr. Carver's establish- 
ment, which claims the attention of the public. 

The man who knows the danger of what is improper, is 
always the first to call for advice : and as the Effect of Ve- 
terinary Medicine as a science, has been to remove many 
hurtful and erroneous prejudices in the treatment of disease, 
and to render Mankind in General more attentive to the 
subject of health, so it is hoped it may prove equally useful 
in what regards that part of the Brute Creuiion, and which 
leads us to a more humane treatment, as well as remov- 
ing many ill practices which have so long existed among 
smiths and empirics in the Art* and which call loudly for 
reformation and redress. 

N. B. Any reference necessary, will be respectfully 
attended to, by application to Br. Cock of Becknian si. or 
Dr. Clements, Veterinary Surgeon, Partition st. New-York ; 
Dr. Hunt and Mr. Bedell, Brooklyn ferry. 

Mr. Carver also intends establishing a Laboratory at 
Brooklyn Ferry, with an arrangement of ready prepared 
medicines for the prevalent Diseases of Horses and other 
Quadrupeds, Which will be dispensed retail by all the Ten- 
ders of Genuine Medicines throughout tiie union, each arti- 
cle enclosing a regular practical Treatise on the Complaint 
the medicine is intended to remove. 




ADVERTISEMENT 

TO THE 

GENTLEMEN, FARMERS AND GRAZIERS 

OF 

LONG ISLAND. 



THE Branch of Science which I have now the honour to 
profess in this department of Natural Knowledge, being al- 
together new in this country, and the Name hy which it is 
called bring hut little known, it becomes indispensable, there- 
fore, to communicate for the better information of the public, 
whatever may be learned on this head. 

Farriery is a name which it derived from the occupation 
of those who practised it — who were in general Smiths, or 
Workers in Iron, ( Ferraeius. J Veterinary is a word de- 
rived from the Latin — Yelerinarius, a term appropriated to 
express cither that part of medicine which regards the cure 
of animals, or the persons who practice that cure. What 
the true Etymon of the word may be, is a question of some 
philological intricacy, though but of little importance. It 
is sufficient here to say, that the word Yeterinarius, as used 
by Columella and Yegetius, signifies a practitioner in one 
particular part of medicine, namely that which respects the 
cure of diseased cattle ; and that Ars Yeteiinaria signi- 
fies (he art of healing applied to the healing of Cattle. 
* The wqrd^hippiatric, is a compound term, formed; of the 
Greek word Hippos, a horse; and cutrace medicine which 
treats of the cure of diseased Horses, in particular, and 
constitutes a principal branch of that division of medicine, 
which treats of the Diseases incident to cattle in general 
and to all other domestic animals. 

^Ve have undoubted evidence that the art was cultivated 
in very early times. In the infancy of medicine, when the 
art of healing was confined to the rude elements of Surgery, 
it was indiscriminately applied to the relief of all accidental 



distresses to winch the animal frame was liable, whether 
they occurred in man, or in those animals which constituted 
his wealth, or were the associates of his labours. In these 
times, many things occurred to attach the minds of men to 
the well being of their Cattle. 

They wore almost solely used for tillage, and the Dairy; 
and the Life and health of the herds was an especial concern. 
Cattle was the great medium of exchange, before the in- 
vention of Coin, and the Ri< hes of Countries and individuals, 
were estimated by the quantity of cattle and the Laws of 
Religion, which religiously forbade the sacrifice of any ani- 
mal, but such as were in the most perfect state of health. 

Chiron the Thessalian, a person whom antiquity held in 
extreme veneration, and who, from his transcend ant skill 
in Horsemanship, and many other useful arts, was called 
the wise Centaur, lived at the age of -the Trojan war. This 
great man descends to us as the father of medicine, and the 
instructor of JEseulapius in that ait. And he was. on the 
concurrent testimony of antiquity, profoundly skilled there- 
in, as also in the cure and management of cattle. 

It would be to no purpose to trace this art minutely 
through all its vicissitudes; it is sufficient to say, that the 
decline of the Roman Empire, and the decay of arts and 
sciences, occasioned for some time (he destruction of this as 
well as every other branch of knowledge. But while Vete- 
rinary Medicine was lost in the West, and was declining fast 
in Greece, it found an asylum among the Jlrahiaiis ; a na- 
tion destined as it should seem by providence, to receive in 
trust the knowledge of Europe, until emerged from the ab- 
ject state into which it was plunged, it was able to reassume 
its intellectual rank. It is worthy of remark, that the Asi- 
atics appear to have preserved that part of the management 
of Horses which consists in their treatment when Diseased, 
entirely separate from the business of the farrier; the con- 
fusion of which essentially distinct occupations, has been 
hitherto the bane of veterinary science among us. — During 
a residence of 15 years among the different nations of the 
East, 1 have the satisfaction to say I learnt many useful 
lessons. 



The great Lord Bacon, sensible of the services lie had 
rendered to medicine by Zootomy with a view to comparative 
anatomy, makes the following observation. 

"The diligence of Zootomists, says he, may much contribute 
to illustrate the doctrine of Androtomy— and both inform 
physicians of the (rue use of the parts of the human body, 
and help to decide divers anatomical controversies, — further 
it would be no new thing for naturalists not professedly phy- 
sicians to treat of this subject ; the naturalist may afford 
good hints to the practitioners of physic, by trying upon 
brutes a variety of untried medicaments or remedies, and 
by suggesting to him both the events of such trials, and 
also what has been already observed about the cure of dis- 
eases incident to beasts. 

"The most skilful physicians might also, without disparage- 
ment to their profession, do it an useful piece of service, it 
they would be pleased to collect and digest all the experi- 
ments and practices of farriers, graziers, butchers and the 
like ; which the ancients did not despise, but honoured with 
the title of Hippiatriea and Veterinaria ; and among which, 
if I had leisure, divers things may be taken notice of, which 
might serve to illustrate the methodus medendi." 

These are a few of the sentiments of ingenious men, se- 
lected of many ; but they are sufficient to prove, that from 
the period at which veterinary medicine ih'st attracted the 
notice of the Learned, it grew more and more an object of 
their attention. 

I shall now follow the progress of this opinion no further, 
l)ii t observe, that after a course of many years, the govern- 
ment cf France undertook to give effectual assistance and 
protection to this most useful part of Domestic Science, and 
to provide for it the same advantages by which medicine 
had formerly advanced. 

It will not be out of place to give here some account of 
the means which the French Government employed, in order 
to bring about the desirable end; and which so justly enti- 
tles France to the same honours with respect to the Veteri- 



navy Art. which the world must ever concede to the school 
of Salerno, with respect to medicine. 

Sensible of the advantages which must result from such 
an institution. Government granted a sum of 50,000 livres 
to defray the expences — providing a Laboratory, dispensary, 
physic, guarding-stables to serve as hospitals, forges, in- 
struments, and utensils ; also rooms for study and dissection ; 
in a word, every thing that might render the Establishment 
complete. 

The first school was opened in January 1762. It was 
very soon tilled with native Students, and in a short time, 
their numbers were increased by foreigners — supported by 
the Empress Queen, the Kings of Denmark, Sweden, Po- 
land, Prussia and Sardinia, and the different Swiss Can- 
tons. 

It remains for me now to give the reader, unconnected 
with the College, some account of myself, and the zeal and 
ardour with which I have for upwards of li years laboured 
to introduce and promulgate the Veterinary Art in this 
country. 

In the year 1802 I arrived from India, and in the fall of 
the same year, paid a visit to the late deceased Dr. Ramsay, 
of Charleston, who observing my predilection to promote the 
introduction of this useful and necessary branch of Science 
in this Country, he opened with Dr. Hush, of Philadelphia, 
a correspondence on that subject. In January following, I 
left Charleston and travelled northwards, where I was ab- 
sent till 1807, when I arrived in Philadelphia, during which 
period I had heard nothing from Dr. Ramsay. In the in- 
terim of which time, several memoirs were addressed to 
different Societies, as well as to different Individuals — Mr. 
Livingston, the Patroon of Albany, General Moreau, and 
Washington Custis, of the Arlington Institution, were among 
the number — none of which were ever answered, except by 
the last mentioned gentleman. On my arrival in Philadel- 
phia in 1S07, I waited on Dr. Rush, who received me with 
much politeness, acknowledging the correspondence which 
Dr. Ramsay had opened with him on the subject.-— Dr. Rusk, 



10 

whose heart was ever warm for the introduction of any new 
branch of science, which might tend to promote the welfare 
of the Animal Creation, conversed much with me on veteri- 
nary subjects, and laboured hard to prevail on me to establish 
that pursuit in that city — but not having then obtained it 
scientifically, I proposed lo Dr. Rush that I should address 
a memoir to the Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania ; and 
they having some short time prior to this offered a medai 
from their society to any Gentleman who would point out 
to them the best mode of introducing the Veterinary Art 
into that state — a memoir was accordingly addressed to that 
body, offering myself a candidate to be sent to the Veteri- 
nary College of London, to be there scientifically educated, 
with a view of returning to practice in Philadelphia. The 
Body of that Society was composed at that time of nearly, 
if not upwards of 200 members — but whether from their 
poverty or their meanness, I could by no exertions in my 
power, rouze their patriotism sufficiently to induce them to 
subscribe even the paltry sum of three cents a day, for my 
education at the college, 

This mark of their solicitude to promote the good of their 
state, was the cause of this subject laying dead until the year 
1812, when it was again renewed by the exertions of Dr. Rush, 
by whose application to Government in behalf of the Agricultu- 
ral Society, a small sum was raised sufficient to enable me to 
reach the college, — where, by my own individual exertions, 
and by application to Wm. Allen and John Capper, Esqrs. of 
the Society of Friends, together with a small sum subscribed 
by Messrs. Morrison &, Wurts, of Philadelphia, the object was 
finally accomplished. — In December 18 « 5, 1 returned to Phil- 
adelphia, and laid before the Agricultural Society my certi- 
ficates and diploma as being duly qualified to fulfil the mis- 
sion on which they sent me, and sorry I am to add, that 
after the zeal, and sacrifices made during a period of 
near fifteen years to accomplish this desired object, I was 
finally under the necessity of giving them my congee as a 
reward, and seek mv fortune elsewhere. 



li 

I accordingly proceeded (o New-York, and my friend and 
colleague Mr J. Clements informing me of a Gentleman on 
Long Island, who had heen long desirous of introducing this 
most useful and necessary branch of Domestic Science, 1 re- 
quested an introduction, from which on being granted, the 
present Establishment has arisen. Thus the truly spirited 
exertion of a single individual, truly desirous of rendering 
a benefit to his neighbours and his country, may probably do 
more good than a Society. 

I am well aware, that these outlines will not escape the 
eye of observation and perhaps criticism,- and when such 
criticism shall be well founded, I shall receive its corrections 
with thankfulness. 

But when it shall appear to be only a morose, or common- 
placed censure, I shall observe silence, and treat it with 
profound contempt. 

I have long foreseen the innumerable difficulties which 
accumulate before me ; I feel myself, however, sufficiently 
bold to encounter them, and although the task which my 
present situation imposes on me is great, no exertion on my 
part shall be wanting, to exert every ability to fulfil it ; and 
if the public, which now honours me with its confidence, 
shall continue to encourage this well meant endeavour to 
alleviate the sufferings of the Brute Creation, I shall also 
make every exertion to correspond with their candour, by 
rendering myself useful in my station. 

JAMES CARTER. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

BEIXG A BRIEF OUTLINE 
BY 

COMPARISON, OF THE TWO SYSTEMS 

OF 

MAN AND HORSE, 

1st. When (lie Almighty created Man. he made a sum- 
mary of the world's fabric, an abstract of Divine nature : In 
him he ended his work : on him he stamp'd his seal, and 
sign of his power, and portrait of himself. In these are the 
three principles of Divine essence; in which essence these 
three principles are united. Theologists call them by the 
Trinity ; the Naturalist, Matter, Spirit, and Motion ; the 
Chymist, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury ; the Anatomist, Cody. 
Blood and Spirit ; the Botanist, Substance, Fragrance and 
Sap. But the philosopher comprehends them all, and 
searches out the Triune, this first great cause, from the 
Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms; and with his in- 
tellectual faculties soars into retherial regions, and exclaims 
with David: " I am fearfully and wonderfully made! 
Whither can I go from thy Spirit.''' Ps. exxxix. 7, 14. In 
fine, Man is a living and walking machine, containing with- 
in itself the principle of its motion and preservation, not only 
for a few years, but sometimes for more than a century. 
Nothing, says an intelligent Physiologist, is a stronger evi- 
dence of the dignity of man, and of his pre-eminence over 
the different species of the Brutes, than the erect position 
of his body, and the majesty imprinted upon his countenance. 
The same ignorant reasoners have attempted to assert, that 
the upright posture of man is not natural to ns ; but the 
conformation of the head and foot, as well as several other 
parts of the human body, clearly prove, that those who thus 
argue are wrong. Other animals have their eyes placed 
on each side of the head, so that they can see the horizon: 



but man, were it not for his erect position, would fare far 
worse with respect to sight, than any of the Brute Creation. 
His eyes would he turned directly towards the ground : and 
he would not be able to shun a thousand dangers which other 
animals avoid by flight, when their sight apprizes them of 
their approach. If, therefore, any tiling evinces, that nature 
destined man to walk with his head erect, it is the very 
conformation of his head. In his upright attitude, he takes 
in at one view the heavens and the earth ; He can look up- 
wards, and downwards, all around him : and so far from hav- 
ing occasion to envy the posture of the creatures around 
him, he may justly consider his own as a favor conferred 
upon him by Nature. 

2d. The Horse is a generous and serviceable creature ; 
possessing the courage of the lion, the fleetnrss of the deer* 
the strength of the ox, and the docility of the spaniel. By 
his aid men become more acquainted with each other; he 
not only bears us through foreign climes, but likewise labors 
in the cultivation of our soil ; draws our hurdens and our- 
selves ; carries us for our amusement and our exercise ; and 
both in sports of the field and the turf, exerts himself with 
an emulation that evinces how eager and ambitious he is 
to please and gratify the desires of his master. lie is both 
our slave and our guardian ; he gives profit to the poor, 
pleasure to the rich ; in our health he forwards our concerns, 
and in our sickness lends a willing assistance for our re- 
covery. 

This fine spirited animal participates with man in the 
toils of a campaign, and the glory of conquest, penetrating 
and undaunted as his master, and views dangers only to brave 
them. In exercise of all kinds, his fire and his courage is 
irresistable, and amidst his boldest exertions, lie is equally 
collected and tractable; not obeying his own impetuosity, 
all his efforts and his actions are guided solely by his rider ; 
indeed such is the greatness of his obedience, that he appears 
to consult nothing but how he can please, and if possible 
anticipates what his master wishes. Every impression he 
receives, has a responsive and compleat obedience ; lie darts 



li 

forward, cheeks his ardour, and slops at command ; and 
the pleasures attendant on his own exertions, he renews, or 
rather centers them in the pleasures and satisfaction of man ; 
nay, he serves him with all his strength — and in his stren- 
uous endeavours to please, he often outdoes himself, and 
even dies in order the heller to obey ! In a word, nature has 
bestowed upon him a disposition, both of love and fear, to 
tl e human race ; she has endowed him also with that per- 
e ion. which yields him the knowledge of every service wc 
and ought in gratitude to render him. 

Such indeed are the acute and generous feelings of this 
noble animal, that he is less affected with his bondage, than 
with the want of our protection ; pleased in the constant 
labour of our health, pleasure, and profit, he feels no distress 
hid what is caused by our own cruelly and ingratitude. All 
lie demands from us therefore, for a life of incessant labour, 
is a support and tender return: the attainment of which, 
creates in him his chief pleasure. If such, therefore, be 
the qualities of this noble creature, surely he who has devo- 
ted his life to the study of his infirmities, has some claim to 
the patronage and protection of his country. 

Having described the qualifications of this noble animal, 
I shall now proceed to give a brief detail of the differ- 
ence of structure between him and man. 

1st. In the formation of the brain: its structure is entire- 
ly different, being reversed ; the cerebellum of the horse 
holds the situation o the cerebrum in man. Its proportions 
are also very different thessize of the brain in the Horse, 
being only in the proportion of one fourth of that in Man. 
The structure of the Jungs of the horse, are also vevy differ- 
ent ; the pulmonary veins being double in number to that 
in man. This of course allows an easier transmission of 
blood from the lungs of the Horse, and consequently occa- 
sions the animal to have its circulation less hurried there, 
where speed is so often required. The pulse of the Horse 
is also different, being generally at a range of from 55 to 
46, though from W to IB is the general medium ; while in 
man, it is generally about 75, seldom under 60. In the 



15 



Horse, the Arteries seldom take any disease, which is gene- 
rally so frequent and so fatal in man. With respect to the 
Blood of the horse, it has less serum than in man ; hecause 
the horse is less suhjeet to dropsical complaints. 

But with respect to the nervous system, its proportion 
between the two animals is in favor of ourselves ; the nerves 
being of course more numerous, in order to answer all those 
finer feelings, as well as all those various sympathies so pre- 
dominant in the human frame ; whilst the Horse, by nature 
limited in his situation and pursuits, possesses a lesser 
proportion, therefore wants that acuteness and sensibility, 
which is so peculiarly connected with that intelligence and 
understanding ordained him by the Almighty. AYhen we 
come to the basis of the structure of both these animals, we 
find that at birth the bones of the Horse are more complete 
than in man, and that the process of ossification has made 
a more rapid progress in the womb ; the spine of the horse, 
by its greater compactness and strength, being more fitted 
for support and strength, than in man. The Vertebrae, or 
bones of the back, are also proportionably firmer and better 
united. 

From the Basis of the Body, we come next to the organs. 
The stomach of the horse being much less than in man, dis- 
plays also less sensibility ; the cnticular part to which the 
Bott is principally attached being quite insensible, and does 
not retain so long as man the food that is received into it. This 
organ contains only three gallons of water. When it is a well 
known fact, from experiments tried in 1814 during my resi- 
dence at the college, that a horse, from long deprivation, 
will drink 5 and G times that quantity. 

The changes also, which affect the assimilation, and com- 
pleat the process of Digestion, are chiefly made by intestines, 
different from man. and for this purpose a peculiar provision 
is made by nature, that the alimentary matter may not be 
hurried too quickly through the intestines; fur in the horse 
there is no Gall Bladder, consequently the bile has not that 
acrimony, or powerful stimulus, or action, on the intestines, 
as in man. Neither is there that necessity for hurrying the 



10 

alimentary matter front the body of the horse, as in man, 
from its having less disposition, in consequence of the food 
of the animal, to putrescency — Man being carnivorous, the 
Horse graminivorous. Connected with the same cause, is 
the formation of the Liver, which is more simple in the 
horse, being divided into seven small lobes — that of man only 
into two — the horse being an animal destined for speed,* 
man not. It is also secured by ligaments : one from the dia- 
phrain* a second, or a portion of the same, from the hreast 
bone, by which means it can neither fall downwards, nor 
sideways ; and the umbilical vein, hy which the fains is 
nourished, becomes its suspensory, or third ligament ; so 
that it can neither push forward in galloping, or going down 
hill, nor press too hard on the soft parts that lie under it. — 
It possesses however no less than i\om forty to fifty hepatic 
veins, while there are few in man. It is also more free from 
disease than that of man, or of any other animal, and the 
simplicity of its structure, may perhaps be considered as the 
cause of this. 

The sense of vision in the horse is particularly powerful. 
He sees better at night than most other animals, and sees 
stronger on each side than straight forward. He has no 
lachrymal duct nor eye brow ; man has both. As quadru- 
peds have no hands to defend those organs, or remove 
extraneous bodies from the eye, Nature has provided for 
them a seventh muscle, which is denied to man, and by 
which means the eye is drawn into the socket at the ap- 
proach of danger. It is a firm cartilaginous membrane, 
situated in the inner canthus of the eye — in heaith hid hy 
the eyelid, except a very small portion, which is black at 
the edge ; but when labouring under inflammation, it pro- 
jects very much forward, from the action of the retractor 
muscle drawing the eye backward to avoid the superfluous 
rays of light. Tims in Tetanus, or lock jaw, when all the 
other muscles are in a most violent state of contraction, this 
membrane, which the Farriers call the Hniv, is drawn over 
the eye, by the action of the retractor oculi. This membrane, 
which nature has provided for the wisest purposes, is often 



mti out hrj common farriers, which ignorant and Vurharous 
practice, cannot he too much rcprobided. 

The Caruneulre Lachrymales also in (he horse is blaek, 
while that in man is red. This has a kind of fold of the 
Conjunctiva — though not entirely covered, as in man. Its 
principal use is to direct the superfluous moisture, secreted 
by the lachrymal duct, to the puncta lachrymalia, from 
whence it is carried into the former, and so passes into the 
nose by the ductus adnasum; which in the horse is very 
long and membranous, but in man short and bony. The 
Tapetum, or the inner covering of the choroid coat, is half 
black, and half green, the better to absorb the superfluous 
rays of light, and also to assist and enable them to collect 
those rays corresponding to their food while grazing. In 
.man those variegated expansions are wanting. 

His hearing is equally powerful, and his ears are covered 
by strong muscles, which direct their position to the object 
present. This is not observable in man. In the circulation 
from the heart of the horse to the head, there is also a 
marked difference ; the supply not being exclusively depend- 
ant on the carotids, for their arteries can be tied up in (he 
horse without danger, whereas the .lying up of one of these 
in man, frequently proves fatal. Tliis operation has been 
performed in several instances with success, in staggers and 
other diseases to which that animal is subject. 

The heart also is formed in some with two, in others 
three, but in all the more perfect quadrupeds with four cavi- 
ties, forming a complete double circulation ; but the distri- 
bution of those vessels producing this, varies in different 
subjects. In man, the aorta gives off, soon after i(s origin, 
the right subclavian, left subclavian and left carotid ark-rice. 
the right earotid being furnished from (he right subclavian, 
so that, properly speaking, there is no ascending aor(a as in 
the human : besides there arc only four pulmonary veins in 
man, in (he horse there are double that number. In the sexual 
organs, the structure of the uterus, or womb, is peculiar in 
having horns, and the testicles in the male show a secretory 
disposition in twelve months-now after the Teste? of (he h u - 



man subject, have passed the abdominal ring, a complete 
union lakes place between the vaginal or outer reflection of 
the peritoniiim, by which means all communication with the 
scrotum and abdomen is shut out : this 'is a wise and kind 
provision to man ; for, from his erect position, was it not so, 
there would be a continual descent of some of the intestines. 
Man is also subject to hernia congenita but animals not 
being subject to this, have not this opening closed ; therefore 
in a horse, a communication between the scrotum and ab- 
domen remains ; but from his prone situation, cither con- 
gental, nor scrotal hernia are but rarely met with. In the 
disposition of the horse, there are many that never lie down, 
but sleep in an erect posture ; and contrary to what is the 
case with most other animals, the horse does not lie down 
after eating. In ii\c years the horse attains his full growth, 
which in man, on the contrary, requires a period of twenty- 
one years, shewing less active powers of the system, and a 
more complicated machine to compleat. 

But what will enable every one to form a proper judgment 
betwixt the constitution of the horse and that of man, is the 
different effects of the same medicines in both. Thus arse- 
nic has been given to a horse in the quantity of two drachms, 
while one eighth of a grain is the proper dose which is 
thought safe to begin with in the human subject. Tartar 
Emetic, a medicine equally active, has been given to the 
horse without any violent operation, to the extent of three 
ounces daily : in man, a single grain is often too large a dose. 
Blue Vitriol also has been given in the same manner, to 
four drachms a day ; verdigris in the same extent. Corro- 
sive sublimate 1ms been exhibited in an equal quantity ; and 
with respect to different narcotics, as Hemlock, Henbane, 
nightshade, ike. &e. have also been given, under my own in- 
spection, when in charge of the Hospital stables at the Royal 
Veterinary College, to a great extent to condemned horses, 
without producing any sensible effect. 

On this I might enlarge ; but I hope sufficient has been 
said, to show what is due to the improvements in this de- 
partment of Anatomy, as well as Medicine, and to none am 



19 

I more indebted than to my worthy instructors Professor 
Coleman and Wm. Sewell, Esq. (Assistant Professor,) for 
their correct anatomical views of various parts of the ani- 
mal ; for their tracing the causes of many diseases as well 
as the difference of structure in both, to their source, on 
which the most erroneous ideas have been entertained ; and 
for explaining their opinions by a proper analogy between 
the. maladies of the animal and man j thus rendering their 
explanation easier and better understood. 

J. CARVER. 

N. B. The public are respectfully informed that "William 
Carver, (Farrier, of Reid st. New-York,) having presump- 
tuously assumed the title of Veterinary Surgeon, he deems 
it a duty to the public to say, that the said William Carver 
has never attended a course of studies either at the College, 
or at any school of anatomy, either human or quadruped. 

Regular lists of all the gentlemen who have studied at the 
College and passed the Examining Committee are published 
yearly. Those lists may be seen at any time by any gentle- 
men desirous of seeing them, by application to Mr. J. Cle* 
ments, Veterinary Surgeon, Partition-Street, New- York. 



THE LOXDOX 

ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE, 

AT ST. PANCRAS 

The Royai, Veterinary Coxlege, is an institution ih-si 
established in the year 1792, at St. Paneras near London, 
The public are indebted for this truly national foundation, 
to the discernment and patriotic exertions of the Agricul- 
tural Society of Oldham, in Hampshire. The. first professor 
was Mr. St. Bell, a Frenchman, who had previously signal- 
ized himself in this country as a veterinary anatomist, by 
dissecting the famous horse Eclipse. The college is sup- 
ported by an annual subscription. The annual contribution 
is two guineas, but the payment of 20 guineas at once, con- 
stitutes a subscriber for life. In some recent instances, the 
institution has shared the bounty of Parliament ; an immense 
saving resulted to the nation from the appointment of Vete- 
rinary Surgeons to the different regiments of British cav- 
alry. 

The views and objects of the College, appear in the follow 
ing statement printed by the authority of the Governors. 
The grand object, they observe, is the improvement of ve- 
terinary knowledge, in order to remedy the ignorance and 
incompetency of Farriers, so long and universally complained 
of. For this end, a range of stables, a forge, a theatre for 
dissections and lectures, with other buildings, have been 
erected ; a gentleman of superior abilities has been appoint- 
ed professor, with other requisite officers. The anatomical 
structure of quadrupeds, as Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and 
Dogs, &e. the diseases to which they are subject, and the 
remedies proper to be applied, are to be investigated and 
regularly taught; by which means enlightened practitioners 
of liberal education, whose whole study has been devoted to 
the veterinary art in all lis branches, may be gradually dis- 
persed over the kingdom, on whose skill and experience 
confidence may securely be placed. 



21 

Pupils to the college, in addition to the Lectures and in- 
structions of the professors, and the practice of the Stables, 
at present enjoy (from the liberality of some of the most 
eminent of the Faculty) the advantages of free admission to 
their medical and anatomical lectures. These pupils previ- 
ous to leaving the college, are strictly examined by a medi- 
cal committee, from whom they receive a proper certificate; 
and upwards of 500 have been examined and approved, have 
left the College, and are at this time practising in the differ- 
ent Regiments of Cavalry, and various parts of the country 
with great success. 

Subscribers have the privilege of sending their diseased 
animals to the college, without further expence than that of 
daily food, and these in general form a sufficient number of 
patients for lite practice of the professor and pupils. On 
fixed days the professor prescribes for the animals belonging 
to the subscribers, who find it inconvenient to send them 
from home, provided the necessary medicines be fv.rv/ishcd 
and compounded at the College. Subscribers horses are also 
there shod at the ordinary prices. His Royal Highness the 
Commander in Chief having been pleased to appoint a Board 
of General Officers, to take into consideration the objects of 
this institution, and they have reported the continental loss to 
be xcv\ heavy, from the total ignorance of those who hitherto 
had the veterinary department in the army. This report his 
Majesty approved, and henceforward to qualify for the milita- 
ry service, a veterinary surgeon must be provided with a regu- 
lar diploma from the college. — A number of gentlemen, sub- 
scribers to the institution, attend once a fortnight to inspect 
(he discipline of the stables, and see that the regulations are 
duly complied with. 

The Patrons of the Royal Veterinary College are as fol- 
lows : 

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, President. 
His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, k. g. f. n. s. r. a. s. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Lord Percy, 

George, Earl of Morton, F. R. S. F. A. S. 



22 

George, Earl of Pembroke, 
Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, F. R. S. 
George, Earl of Macclesfield, 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, 
George, Earl of Warwick, 
Sir T. C. Banbury, Bart. M. P. 
George Home Sumner, Esq. 31. P. 
Thomas Pell, Esq. F. A. S. 
Granville Penn, Esq. F. A. S. 
Note. — This last mentioned gentleman is of the Penn 
family of Pennsylvania, and is now Jiving in England. He 
was the friend mid patron of Mr. Charles Vial De St. Bell, 
the first Professor of Veterinary College ; a great promoter 
of Veterinary Science, and the gentleman who laid the foun- 
dation stone of that Institution. 

The following gentlemen originally constituted the Com- 
mittee of Examiners, for the purpose of granting diplomas 
to the pupils of the college, when sufficiently qualified to 
engage in practice, 

Dr. John Hunter, 
Mr. Cline, Mr. Houlston, 

Mr. A. Cooper, Dr. Baillie, 

Dr. <J. Forth ce, Dr. Babbington, 

Mr. Homo, Mr. Abcrnethy. 

The present Examining Committee are 
Henry Cline, Esq. F. R. S. President. A. P. Cooper, Esq. F. R. &. 
Dr. Babbington, F. R. S. Dr. Cook, 

Dr. Baillie, F. R. S. Dr. Pearson, 

Sir Everard Home, F. R. S. Dr. Wilson, F. R. S. 

J. Abcrnethy, Esq. F. R. S. A. Cline, Esq. 

Edw'd Coleman, Professor, Wm. Swell, Esq. Ass't Proles'r, 

Treasurer and Secretary. 
Among the improvements of these latter times, the exten- 
sion of a regularly cultivated system of Veterinary Practice, 
and the attempts to rescue (he superior class of domestic 
animals from the torturing hand of presumptuous ignorance, 
are not the least considerable, either in the view of humanity 
or life. 



2S 

It is true, that during the various ages which have passed 
since the days of Columella, the number of writers treating on 
veterinary science, according to the best medical light which 
their times afforded, has been considerable ; but these works 
had never any very extensive circulation. Competent prac- 
titioners were wanting to put their precepts in force ; and 
diseased animals were either totally neglected, or confided 
to the unmeaning and capricious efforts of the illiterate vul- 
gar. — Entirely to wipe away this opprobrium on humanity 
and common sense, must infinitely redound to the credit of 
the present times ; and it is consoling to be able to announce, 
that attempts are daily making towards that beneficent end, 
by considerate and philanthropic characters in various parts 
of our own and neighbouring country. 

Ancient prescription and a false pride, among the medical 
faculty, compose the twofold cause which has hitherto de- 
prived our Domestic Animals of the benefits and comforts 
of regular assistance. Cattle have always been doctored in 
every country, either by their attendants or by men pretty 
nearly on a level with those in point of education, who, on 
the strength of having learned to perform the most sim- 
ple and common operation, and from the want of able pro- 
ficients, have undertaken the arduous task of prescribing 
medicine. We need not wonder that in former limes such 
professors were held duly qualified, since men impartially 
committed their own persons to the hands of ignorant barber 
Surgeons, and since so many absurdities of equal magnitude 
subsisted, which like Spectres and Gliosis, have vanished at 
the approach of modern light ; but it may well be thought, 
surprizing, in this discerning age, when a liberal education 
is universally acknowledged to be absolutely necessary to the 
acquisition of Medical Science, that an illiterate Farrier 
should be trusted in the cure of diseases. Precisely the 
same studies, physiological, anatomical and medical, are re- 
quisite for the veterinarian as the human practitioner. The 
animal economy in its manifold relations, is generally fun- 
damcnlally the same in men and beasts, and governed by 
the same laws : the same materia medica is in a great de- 



grec applicable to botb ; but the greatest skill is requisite, 
to form a judgment oi" the symptoms of diseases in Brutes, 
from their inability to describe their own feelings, and the 
consequent uncertainty of their pathology. 

Can there be a greater burlesque than the supposition of 
a man's ability to prescribe physic for a horse, merely be- 
cause he knows how to groom and shoe him ? or might we 
not also, with equal reason, employ our own shoemaker to 
take measure of our health ? The plea of experience is fu- 
tile, from the utter inability (prima facie) of illiterate and 
uninformed men to investigate the principles of science, and 
their total want of opportunity to acquire by rote, a rational 
system of practice. The whole stock of medical knowledge 
of these practitioners, usually consists in a certain number of 
receipts, derived from their masters or fathers, and with 
which they continually ring the changes in all cases right 
or wrong j and so fiercely are they bigoted to their own pe- 
culiar nostrums, that they arc totally incapable of all advice 
or improvement — the common and unavoidable fate of con- 
firmed ignorance, since it is the highest point of knowledge, 
to know that ive still need information. They sometimes 
cure by luck, seldom from knowledge, but often kill by regu- 
larly adapted process. — How often has the miserable patient's 
shoulder been pegg'd, and blown, and bored, by way of pun- 
ishment, for the folly of getting himself strained in the back 
sinews of the leg, or coffin joint ! J low many pleuretic horses 
have been killed outright by ardent spicy drenches, which 
probably might have cured the colic ! How many have been 
rendered incurably lame, from the patent shoe being affixed 
to the wrong foot ! — Let not the reader suppose these to be 
mere flourishes, applied to the generality of farriers within 
my knowledge. I aver them, on the experience of many 
years, to be literal truths 5 and by the tenor of them, he ma;. 
judge of the majority of that faculty throughout Europe. 
Into such hands do we commit our distempered animals, 
which have it not in their power to reproach us with their 
accumulated sufferings; mankind from prejudice, indolence, 



25 

©r want of feeling, neglecting those creatures which they 
can purchase with their money. 

It has beferl supposed that veterinary writers have heen 
wanting. It was many years ago discovered in France, that 
the hest remedy for this defect, and the only adequate method 
for the general diffusion of Veterinary knowledge, and the 
rearing of a sufficient numher of persons properly qualified 
in that line, would he to erect puhlic seminaries expressly 
dedicated to the purpose. 

"We of this country came (late indeed) into the same 
salutary measures ; and a Veterinary College, as a hospital 
for cattle, has been established in London, and others, in 
various parts of the kingdom. The propriety of these steps, 
and the benefits derived from them, must he obvious in the 
extension of veterinary knowledge and the increase of prac- 
titioners. 

Public Institutions, provided they are not unduly favoured 
with exclusive privileges, or armed with coercive and re- 
strictive powers, are ever most efficacious and contributory 
to the advancement of science. The scattered rays of know- 
ledge are, by joint and public means, best collected into a 
common focus or centre, whence they are with more ease 
and expedition, diffused arid circulated throughout the whole 
body of the commonwealth. The Veterinary College has 
also adopted a vory judicious method of disseminating the 
true principles of shoeing, by erecting forges in different quar- 
ters of the metropolis, where all persons may at any time 
have their horses shod, at the common price charged to sub- 
scribers Prejudice, I know, on more important occasions, 

has often been trumped forth as not only harmless, but bene- 
ficial among men ; which indeed would be just were there 
any general utility in the continuance of ancient abuses. It 
is the grand business of philosophy, to provide a counterblast 
for these interested or ignorant trumpeters. 

It has already been asked, for the advocates of our shoeing 
and sow gelding Doctors, how they came to suppose, that 
less medical knowledge would suffice to prescribe for the 
Brute, than for the human animal, who can orally depict hh 

4 



26 

own feelings, and verbally assist the physician in forming a 
correct judgment of his disease. They seem to act upon the 
strange supposition, that it is much easier for an illiterate 
man to penetrate at once, as it were hy intuition into the 
arcana of the Sciences, than for a learned or well informed 
man to render himself skilful in the nature and management 
of Horses. — Can a man be the worse farrier for having learn- 
ed the necessity of making constant observations of his own, 
instead of acting hy rote, and being guided by a few arbitrary 
receipts, for knowing the Nature of the medicines he pre- 
scribes, the anatomy and animal functions of the horse, and 
for making all such knowledge his study ? 

In fine, all at this moment appears obscured or bewildered, 
by the ill placed confidence of the owners of Cattle upon the 
Blacksmith of the Parish ; upon illiterate and conceited 
grooms, stupid and listless shepherds ; or upon a set of men 
infinitely more dangerous than all the rest, who, arrogating 
to themselves the style of doctors, ride about from town to 
town, and from village to village, distributing their nostrums, 
compounded of the refuse and vapid scraps of druggists' 
shops, to the destruction of thousands, whose varied Disorders 
they treat alike, neither consulting nature or art for the 
cause or the effect. Miserable animal 1 — bereft of speech, 
thou eau&t not complain, when to the disease with which 
thou art afflicted, excruciating torments are superadded by 
the ignorant eflbrts of such men, who, at first sight, and with- 
out any investigation to lead them to the source of thy disor- 
der, pronounce a hackneyed, common-placed opinion on tby 
case, and then proceed with all expedition, to open thy veins, 
lacerate thy fiesh, cauterize thy sinews, and drench thy 
stomach with drugs, adverse in general to the cure they 
engage to perform. 

Opposed to this barbarous and noxious practice, let us 
turn our eye to that of the Veterinary Physician and Sur- 
geon. 

AVc shall not find him occupying the attention of his audi- 
tors with the accounts of miraculous cures he never perform- 
ed ; — or, under the mask of sullen arrogance, endeavouring 



27 



to attract confidence : we shall not see him armed at all points 
Willi phlemes, rovvelling knives, and cauterizing irons, to rack 
and torment his suffering patients ; or with drenches or halls, 
to obstruct the efforts of nature. — We shall see him with a 
cautious eye and tender hand, surveying and examining, 
with discretion and judgment, into the case before him ; and 
as far as he can attain information from those who bring the 
animal to him, we shall find him an anxious and patient en- 
quirer ; proceeding to explore all the external signs, and to 
observe with great minuteness every symptom which presents 
itself; and if he finds them so complicated that he cannot 
with certainty proceed to give an opinion, he will wait till 
some new, or more distinct appearances come to his assist- 
ance. If, however, these signs should not show themselves, 
to give effect, he will then apply to the only resource left 
him, that of compelling nature to develope herself, or, at 
least, to show some indications. This he accomplishes 
through the means of medical aid, administered in proper 
quantities, which, by increasing more or less sensibly, the 
disease, produces some discovery of hs tendency. 

Now that witches and ghosts of all kinds are flitting apace 
off the scenes, it is full lime for men to lay aside the expec- 
tation of all other uncaused effects. On these topics a cele- 
brated Veterinary writer dwells, with peculiar force of il- 
lustration, as he says "from a motive of justice, on account 
of the irrational prejudice of too many persons concerning 
the Veterinary College." 

« Enjoying a public institution in the metropolis," says he, 
« where Veterinary Science in all its branches is regularly 
taught and practised, it remains for those who interest them- 
selves in the safety and well being of our domestic animals, 
to devise and recommend the most proper and expeditious 
methods, of a general diffusion of these benefits throughout 
the country. The Farriers of London were advised by per- 
sons of influence, to allow their sons and apprentices to at- 
tend the College Lectures which are given, and which in- 
deed is practiced by several of good repute. Those gentle- 
men of the medical profession attending the London Ilospi 



28 

tals, whose destination is for country practice, will sorely 
perceive great probable advantage in the acquisition of vete- 
rinary knowledge, even if they have no present intention to 
profess that branch of medicine. Business, as is sometimes 
the ease, with young practitioners, may run short at the out- 
set, and the leisure time might be both honourably and pro- 
fitably employed in veterinary practice. Such meritorious 
and humane occupation, could not possibly injure the medical 
character of a medical gentleman in these enlightened times ; 
on the contrary, it would be more probable to procure him 
connections of the most valuable sort — and might be his pass- 
port and introduction to the families of medical men.'* 

Thus far we have stated the opinions of a writer truly in- 
genious, and most deservingly popular. Just, however, as 
are the encomiums of this useful institution at an early pe- 
riod of its existence, yet we are bound more especially to 
acknowledge the extraordinary progress which this institu- 
tion afterwards made (and is now making) under its present 
enlightened and truly ingenious professor Mr. Coleman. This 
gentleman, to a natural taste for these investigations, united 
a profound knowledge of his profession, as an anatomist and 
surgeon — a foundation on which the Veterinary Science could 
not but be erected with singular advantage. That this has 
actually been the case, our readers must be aware that from 
the report of 1814, published in London, brought over by 
Mr. Carver, that not less than 600 students have passed at 
this institution, who are now attached to the different Regi- 
ments of British Cavalry, and also practising in various parts 
of the united kingdoms ; besides the different articles in 
which Mr. Coleman's name and writings have necessarily 
been brought forward ; for which reason we close the pre- 
sent article without entering on those particulars, which it 
would otherwise have been our indispensable duty to have 
slated. 



THE CHARACTER 

OP A 

VETERINARY SURGEON, 

IN a limited sense, is one who practices the operative part 
of the Veterinary Art, and whose views do not extend to the 
treatment of constitutional maladies in brute animals. 

The veterinary practitioners in general are named Veteri- 
nary Surgeons — and this designation also attaches to those 
who engage in all the branches of the profession, as they are 
required in the different Regiments of Cavalry. We shall 
devote this article particularly to the consideration of those 
qualifications which every man engaged in it ought to pos- 
sess, in an equal degree with those whose conduct and ope- 
ration are exercised on the human body. 

There is undoubtedly no profession in which greater na- 
tural qualifications are required than our own. The more 
liberal nature has been in her gifts, the more carefully the 
first impressions have been cultivated by rational education 
— by so much the better will a man be fitted for (he practice 
of it. Youth, firmness, dexterity, acute sensation, sound 
judgment and humanity, are the qualifications which may be 
considered as necessary for a surgeon, whether his patient 
be a mem or a quadruped. 

1st. We will begin by observing — that in youth strong im- 
pressions are made on the mind, and that he who begins to 
study on the brute as well as the human subject, from the 
earliest period of life, will be most likely to acquire reputa- 
tion. 2d. Firmness, is the second qualification of a Veteri- 
nary Surgeon, and is indeed extended to the mind as well as 
the body. It implies resolution to go through his operations, 
however hazardous or severe, undisturbed by any external 
or accidental circumstances — unmoved or unawed by the 
presence of spectators. It also implies presence of mind 
to determine how to act under all circumstances. 



30 

Dexterity, in using his instruments, is also a necessary 
qualification in a Veterinary Surgeon. It enables him to 
finish an operation wi^h all convenient dispatch, and with the 
least pain to the patient, whether brute or human. 

Acute sensation is extremely necessary also for a Veteri- 
nary Surgeon ; for how often do instances occur in the acute 
diseases of the horse, where (he nicest delicacy of the touch 
is necessary to distinguish the true state of the pulse. 

Sound Judgment is, on many accounts of the utmost im- 
portance to the Veterinarian. It enables him to form judi- 
cious prognostics, by which he may calculate the chances for 
or against Ihe event of any operation proposed. It is often not 
less useful in deciding for the patient's possible advantage, 
than in preserving his own reputation, and keeping up the 
credit of his art. 

It also teaches him to determine with precision the time 
necessary for performing an operation, leads him to the 
choice of the best methods of executing it, or perhaps fur- 
nishes him with the more laudable and happy contrivance of 
recovery of his patient by more gentle means. 

Humanity, is the last qualification mentioned as necessary 
for a Veterinary Surgeon ; and though last, not the least im- 
portant and laudable. 

This indeed is the cardinal qualification of all ; it reflects 
a lustre on the rest, and compleats the true character of the 
man, as well as of the Surgeon. The exercise of it is re- 
quired in (wo ways; first, humanity in operation, and sec- 
ondly, tenderness in our subsequent treatment. Humanity 
in operating, should induce us to put an end to our patient's 
sufferings, (whether brute or human.) as soon as we can, 
and also to perform this severe though necessary task after 
such a manner as shall be attended with the least possible 
degree of pain, besides the pleasing satisfaction resulting to 
ourselves, of having done our duly when actuated by such 
motives. 

Tenderness in our behaviour for the Brute Creation, needs 
not an argument to enforce its necessity — it being no less 
honourable to feel for them than ourselves ; and surely the 



31 

distresses of brute ereatures, and the pain we are often obli- 
ged to inflict upon tbem, is sufficient to soften the hardest 
heart, and to raise the emotions oF compassion within us to- 
wards those mute sufferers who have toiled in our fields, and 
lent the labouring hand to help build our cities and our 
churches. 

When dressings are either removed or applied, it should 
be done with a gentle hand, and in a manner which would 
convince the bystander that it is not the veterinary surgeon's 
intention to give pain, even to the most inferior animal if he 
can avoid it ; while a contrary conduct to this may ever 
prove an ohstacle to his success in life ; for cruelty will in- 
crease by habit, and at length render his manners coarse and 
offensive, even to those on whose liberality the emoluments 
of his future practice may in a great measure depend. 

We shall now come to consider the acquired knowledge 
necessary to make a good veterinary surgeon. On this point 
we shall make one general observation — to wit, that the 
more extensive and universal a man's knowledge may be, 
from having made these his pursuits and acquirements in 
various quarters of the globe, (and which (he writer has had 
every opportunity of obtaining from early life,) the better 
fitted will he be for the exercise of his profession. But, not 
to alarm young persons by considering the subject too exten- 
sively, or by a vain display of science, it is necessary here 
to mention that knowledge which it is absolutely necessary 
they should acquire. If they are as conversant as they ought 
to be, in the matter proposed to their industry and applica- 
tion in this work, the knowledge they will then have obtained 
cannot but raise a spirit of enquiry in their minds, which 
will lead to more important exertions. 

The next and most important acquisition, is a knowledge 
of the power and properties of Medicines. The various sub- 
stances of the materia mediea — the different elasses of the 
vegetable, mineral and animal kingdoms, so far as they relate 
to physic, supply all the several applications used in Veteri- 
nary Surgery. If therefore we are ignorant of (he qualities 
of these substances, we may commit the grossest mistakes 



in the use of (hem. Instead of an emollient we may apply 
an cseharotic, and instead of a stimulating application, we 
may perhaps prescribe a sedative. 

Without this knowledge, it is impossible to practice onr 
profession with any degree of credit or success ; though by 
some it may possibly be argued that we should have learned 
these things equally from experience. Nothing therefore 
can be more necessary than a knowledge of the Materia 
Medico, and consequently of J etcrinary Tharmucy — which 
is nothing more than a knowledge of the art of mixing and 
compounding the several articles of the Veterinary Materia 
Medica, so as to produce a combination capable of effecting 
what cannot be done by any solid or fluid substance singly. 

The last point to be insisted on, as demanding our parti- 
cular attention, is the study of Anatomy. The body of the 
Horse, the Cow, the Sheep and the Bog, being the subject of 
our operations, how shall we be able to perform them pro- 
perly, if we are ignorant of the construction cf the machine 
on which we are to work 

Jl eompkat and thorough knowledge of Comparative Ana- 
tomy is therefore absolutely necessary to acquire ; and the 
the method to be pursued in order to acquire this knowledge, 
must be the work of our own hands, in the Dissecting Booms 
of those Institutions established for that purpose, in different 
parts of Europe. Mere oral instruction is not sufficient ; 
w\e may attend the most ingenious and instructive lectures 
in anatomy of the human subject, without being fitted for 
the exercise of our profession. It is therefore necessary to 
dissect, to trace, and inspect, the several parts of animals 
with our owfl hands and eyes; and this with care and in- 
dustry. 



MelH'ist, 
V/ZL 

mo